Skip to content

Hardware

This is the list of hardware I’m going to use (you can achieve this with one worker, or two)

  • 9x Raspberry Pi 4 ( 4GB Ram version ) – 1pc = 68.90,-Eur
  • 9x 32GB USB Disk (Samsung USB 3.1 32 GB Fit Plus) – 1pc = 10.90,-Eur
  • 9x 64GB USB Disk ( Samsung USB 3.1 64 GB Fit Plus) – 1pc = 19.50,-Eur
  • 1x WiFi router TP-Link TL-WR902AC – 1pc = 34.90,- Eur ( Later I changed from WiFi to LAN cables and Mikrotik 10 port Router, ostly because of storage. Storage is network driven, and the faster the connection you have the better. However, for basic testing WiFi will do just fine)
  • 2x I-TEC USB 3.0 Charging HUB 16port + Power Adapter 90 W – 1pc = 54.90,-Eur ( One is not enough (One is not enough to power 9x Rpi, since we also power USB disks, and for just 1x Rpi you need around 15W (5V x 3A) [ all together 9x Rpi can draw up to 135W ]. Therefore,I’m adding one more of the same USB hub to help, but if possible, go with a PoE solution if you can get a cheap PoE switch.*).

In total: 1 036.15,- Eur ( shit, that much?!? I have bought these components over time… but fuck me, for that I could get HP G6 or G7 2U server, second hand 😀 )

Regarding the USB disks – The bigger ones 64GB) are to be used as persistent storage for pods. I was experimenting with GlusterFS storage, some CEPH + ROOK and ended with Longhorn.

The smaller ones are boot USB disks. This way, I hope it will live much longer than an SD card 🙂

Speed benchmarks

Speed benchmarks between USB drive and SD card.

SD Card (Kingston Canvas Select Plus micro SDHC 16GB Class 10 UHS-I):

     Category                  Test                      Result
HDParm                    Disk Read                 41.25 MB/s
HDParm                    Cached Disk Read          37.70 MB/s
DD                        Disk Write                9.9 MB/s
FIO                       4k random read            2910 IOPS (11642 KB/s)
FIO                       4k random write           657 IOPS (2630 KB/s)
IOZone                    4k read                   10288 KB/s
IOZone                    4k write                  2340 KB/s
IOZone                    4k random read            7832 KB/s
IOZone                    4k random write           2404 KB/s

                          Score: 963

USB Flash Drive 64GB (Samsung USB 3.1 64 GB Fit Plus):

     Category                  Test                      Result
HDParm                    Disk Read                 33.92 MB/s
HDParm                    Cached Disk Read          25.00 MB/s
DD                        Disk Write                16.2 MB/s
FIO                       4k random read            1713 IOPS (6855 KB/s)
FIO                       4k random write           1722 IOPS (6890 KB/s)
IOZone                    4k read                   12017 KB/s
IOZone                    4k write                  8285 KB/s
IOZone                    4k random read            10110 KB/s
IOZone                    4k random write           9038 KB/s

                          Score: 1917

USB Flash Drive 256GB (Samsung USB 3.1 256 GB Fit Plus):

     Category                  Test                      Result
HDParm                    Disk Read                 69.28 MB/s
HDParm                    Cached Disk Read          70.57 MB/s
DD                        Disk Write                24.4 MB/s
FIO                       4k random read            2960 IOPS (11841 KB/s)
FIO                       4k random write           2932 IOPS (11731 KB/s)
IOZone                    4k read                   13793 KB/s
IOZone                    4k write                  13249 KB/s
IOZone                    4k random read            10692 KB/s
IOZone                    4k random write           11654 KB/s

                          Score: 2524

As you can see, this is not a miracle speedup, but it is better than an SD card, and hopefully a USB flash drive can survive a bit longer. Of course, if you would use any actual SSD drive the score would be something above 6000. Or, you can boot from a network, which also avoids SD cards, but for that you need a beefier PXE boot server.

Script used for testing: https://github.com/TheRemote/PiBenchmarks


Last update: April 9, 2021

Comments